Handbook of Collective Robotics - Fundamentals and Challenges


Collective robotics is young and promising research field, where many robots work as one team, group or swarm to achieve a common goal. Collective systems provide several essential advantages such as extended reliability, scalability, flexibility and reconfigurability, capabilities for emergent and self-organizing phenomena. Depending on size, complexity and underlying principles of interaction and information transfer, there are different small-, middle- and large-scale systems, denoted as cooperative, networked, swarm and nano-robotics. All these systems utilize different mechanisms of perception, coordination and learning. Lately, research on swarm, reconfigurable and evolutionary robotics leaded to an appearance of morphogenetic systems, so-called artificial organisms, with advanced homeostatic and adaptive functionality. Collective systems became attractive for different underwater, aerial and industrial applications as well as for new areas of nano- and biological (bacterial) robotics. This book describes basic principles underlying collective systems, discusses such issues as design of emergence, fault tolerance, self-properties, artificial evolution, appearance of robot cultures and indicates main application areas.

This book is devoted to mechatronic, chemical, bacteriological, biological, and hybrid systems, utilizing cooperative, networked, swarm, self-organizing, evolutionary and bio-inspired design principles and targeting underwater, ground, air, and space applications. It addresses issues such as open-ended evolution, self-replication, self-development, reliability, scalability, energy foraging, adaptivity, and artificial sociality. The book has been prepared by 52 authors from world-leading research groups in 14 countries. This book covers not only current but also future key technologies and is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about collective robotics and how it might affect our society.

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Table of Contents
  Page Title     
    Front Matter    
  1 Chapter 1: Introduction to Collective Robotics: Reliability, Flexibility, and Scalability
Serge Kernbach
  49 Chapter 2: The Swarm-Bot Experience: Strength and Mobility through Physical Cooperation
Roderich Groß, Rehan O’Grady, Anders Lyhne Christensen, and Marco Dorigo
  81 Chapter 3: Architectures and Control of Networked Robotic Systems
Nikolaus Correll and Daniela Rus
  105 Chapter 4: Cooperative Robotics in Robocup Soccer is Not Just Playing a Game
Andrea Bonarini
  127 Chapter 5: Evolving Collective Control, Cooperation, and Distributed Cognition
Vito Trianni and Stefano Nolfi
  167 Chapter 6: Reliability and Fault Tolerance in Collective Robot Systems
Lynne E. Parker
  205 Chapter 7: Collective Reconfigurable Systems: Fundamentals of Self-Reconfiguration Planning
Feili Hou and Wei-Min Shen
  231 Chapter 8: Self-Organized Robotic Systems: Large-Scale Experiments in Aggregation and Self-Assembly Using Miniature Robots
Gregory Mermoud, Amanda Prorok, Lo?c Matthey, Christopher Cianci, Nikolaus Correll, and Alcherio Martinoli
  261 Chapter 9: Biomimetic and Bioinspired Design of Collective Systems
Thomas Schmickl, Karl Crailsheim, Jean-Louis Deneubourg, and Jose Halloy
  309 Chapter 10: Improving the Scalability of Collective Systems
Serge Kernbach
  353 Chapter 11: Collective Foraging: Cleaning, Energy Harvesting, and Trophallaxis
Alan F. T. Winfield, Serge Kernbach, and Thomas Schmickl
  413 Chapter 12: Individual, Social, and Evolutionary Adaptation in Collective Systems
Evert Haasdijk, A. E. Eiben, and Alan F. T. Winfield
  473 Chapter 13: Replicators: From Molecules to Organisms
Istvan Zachar, Adam Kun, Chrisantha Fernando, and Eors Szathmary
  505 Chapter 14: Developmental Collective Robotics: Advantages and Challenges of Unbounded Self-Development
Serge Kernbach
  547 Chapter 15: A General Methodology for the Control of Mixed Natural-Artificial Societies
Francesco Mondada, Jos´e Halloy, Alcherio Martinoli, Nikolaus Correll, Alexey Gribovskiy, Gregory Sempo, Roland Siegwart, and Jean-Louis Deneubourg
  587 Chapter 16: Underwater Robot Swarms: Challenges and Opportunities
Navinda Kottege, Felix Schill, Alexander Bahr, and Uwe R. Zimmer
  609 Chapter 17: Aerial Collective Systems
Jean-Christophe Zufferey, Sabine Hauert, Timothy Stirling, Severin Leven, James Roberts, and Dario Floreano
  661 Chapter 18: Collective Systems in Space and for Planetary Explorations
Dario Izzo, Christos Ampatzis, and Tobias Seidl
  695 Chapter 19: Nanorobotics: A Perspective
Aristides A. G. Requicha
  707 Chapter 20: Minimalistic Large-Scale Microrobotic Systems
Oliver Scholz, Angel Dieguez, and Paolo Corradi
  745 Chapter 21: Chemical Swarm Robots
Peter Grancic and Frantisek Stepanek
  773 Chapter 22: Performing Collective Tasks with Flagellated Bacteria Acting as Natural and Hybrid Microrobots
Sylvain Martel